Zhiang LIU

Ritsumeikan University

Collage of Life Science

Department of Biotechnology



Immunotherapy is a kind of treatment method which can artificially enhance or inhibit the immune function of the body to achieve the purpose of treating diseases. There are many methods of immunotherapy, which are suitable for the treatment of many diseases. The purpose of tumor immunotherapy is to activate human immune system and kill cancer cells and tumor tissues by means of autoimmune function. Different from the previous surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapy, immunotherapy is not aimed at tumor cells and tissues, but the immune system of human body.

Part 1: history and background

Coley's idea and mechanism of Coley's toxin.

It is same likes because there a theft was happened in our city, so we raise alert and check suspects. But we got an unexpected gain, we catch a serial killer. In this case, Infection is the thief, and cancer is the Serial killer.

In 1980s, American national cancer institute use a kind of cytokine which called IL-2, Cured a patient with advanced melanoma. Cytokine is a kind of protein which can regulate the immune response, in the case, they use IL-2 to buff the power of immune system. After that, immunotherapy has really entered the public's field of vision and has become an important topic of research.

Part 2: Cancer immune

T cell, Main force of our immune system, seems like an arbitrary and aggressive police. He will attack everyone who haven’t good guys card.In usual, only normal cells have the card., it makes T cell don't kill the innocent. But some tumor cell has PD-L1 too, then our T cell will be deceived. They will not attack tumor cells.

Our sergeant T also have a good helper his name is police dog TCR. TCR will lead T cell found cancer cell.


1:Checkpoint inhibitor

2: Cellular treatment

Part 3: Recent research

Regenerative immunology.

Each T cell has only one TCR, TCR is very diverse. So in our body, there are also some T cells that can recognize tumor cells naturally. But they are very weak or in a small number.

The classic regenerative immunology treatment is to select effective T cells form patient and make them to iPS cells, different to T cell, iPS cellsCan proliferate and Can be anything, you can regard it as a baby.A baby can be anything, but he still has a memory about he was a effective sergeant T. so he tend to be effective T cells. In this way we can get lots of effective T cells.


Immunotherapy is a promising subject. If we can study it thoroughly, it may become our pioneer in entering the era of molecular medicine, bringing an unprecedented revolution to modern medicine.